Tuberculosis intoxication in children and adults
Tuberculosis in many people is associated with a severe incurable infectious disease of the lungs or upper respiratory tract. Not only the asocial layers of the population or those who were imprisoned are affected by this disease, this process affects, including children. Infect, maybe, absolutely any person, regardless of social belonging. And the most dangerous is severe complications and unusual forms of the disease, when all internal organs are involved in the process.
What is it - tuberculosis intoxication? In what cases is this diagnosis made and what if there is such a patient in the family?
What is tuberculosis intoxication?
Tuberculosis is an acute or chronic infectious disease with a primary lesion of the respiratory system caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. These microorganisms more often get through the respiratory tract and are captured by macrophages (blood cells, whose work is to fight infections). Then our "defenders" transfer the alien cells to nearby lymph nodes, where they stay for a while. Tuberculosis develops with weakened immunity or with a large number of mycobacteria, which reduce the protective mechanisms of our body. During this period, tuberculosis can develop in any form.
Tuberculosis intoxication is a term that indicates the development of tuberculosis infection when it is impossible to establish precise localization. That is, when all tests during the examination indicate the presence and reproduction of mycobacteria in the body, and the specific location of the pathogen can not be established. Such a diagnosis often sounds in childhood and adolescence, for adults other conditions are characteristic. At them it is more likely not the separate form of disease, and the syndrome characteristic for the late started stages of the painful process. Symptoms of older people often resemble poisoning.
Diagnosis of tuberculous intoxication
Tuberculosis is easy to diagnose if the disease is in full swing. The classic manifestation of tuberculosis is cough, weakness, prolonged fever and constant malaise. But in the period of infection, when the body only met with the infection manifestations meager. That is why at the first stages it is almost never diagnosed. To caution the health workers can the following points.
- If the family has infected people.
- In the process of annual testing, a positive tuberculin test is detected in children. This is a method of diagnosing not only tuberculosis intoxication, but also other forms of the disease.
- It is possible to suspect the disease in the case when the child or adult is constantly enlarged lymph nodes and in the analysis of the blood there are signs of inflammation.
- The annual fluorographic study shows nonspecific changes in the lungs and surrounding tissues.
- At later stages, during a period of vivid manifestations, tuberculous intoxication in children and adults can be established on the basis of symptoms.
- The early course of tuberculosis infection is manifested by irritability or inhibition, general malaise, increased nervous excitability, headache, lack of appetite, palpitations. But on such grounds it is difficult to suspect the beginning of the disease, because they are typical for many processes. Therefore, it is often established the diagnosis of tuberculosis intoxication already at a chronic stage.
- Later, the disease manifests itself by increasing almost all forms of lymph nodes to insignificant sizes, only 0.5-1.5 cm. They are dense and painful during examination.
- Periodic slight increase in body temperature.
- Chronic tuberculous intoxication is characterized by a slight increase in the liver or spleen during examination of internal organs.
- Expressed fatigue, decreased efficiency.
- The emergence of intercurrent diseases. These are those painful processes that appear against the background of the underlying illness, not associated with it.
- In the general analysis of blood, there are constant changes, characteristic of tuberculosis infection: an increase in the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation, a decrease in lymphocytes, an increase in the number of eosinophils and neutrophils.
- In addition to general symptoms, there is a stoppage of physiological weight gain or a sharp deficit. Up to one year the child's body weight is measured every month, after a year it is done once every 12 months. Indicators of the increase vary slightly, in the infected children it is not observed.
- Children are prone to bronchoadenitis (an increase in the number of lymph nodes in the area next to the bronchi), therefore on the roentgenogram inflammation in this area is more often detected.
- Myocobacteria spread through the circulatory system to all organs, children are prone to severe complications: tuberculous meningitis and miliary tuberculosis.
- In the treatment it is important not only the use of medicines, but also compliance with the general regime, proper nutrition, courses of sanatorium treatment.
- Of the medicines used 3 main groups of drugs: derivatives of isonicotinic acid (isoniazid) and rifampicin, medications of average efficiency (ethambutol, streptomycin) and moderate (PASK, Tibon).
- In doubtful cases, prescribe drug treatment in therapeutic doses for a period of 3 months followed by follow-up.
- How to remove intoxication with tuberculosis? Apply long-term treatment regimens for at least six months, with the appointment of two to four drugs at a time. In addition, prescribe vitamins and immunostimulating substances. If one of the schemes is ineffective, it can be replaced by another with complete replacement of the drugs.
- When diagnosing a family member, all the others fully undergo examinations and are observed with the therapist or pediatrician for a long time.
At present, such a diagnosis is exhibited in rare cases. There are early and chronic forms of infection. For each variant of tuberculosis intoxication symptoms are characteristic.
For the diagnosis make a general blood test, an X-ray in the direct and lateral projections, conduct sputum examination with the definition of specific cells.
Tuberculosis intoxication in children and adolescents
This diagnosis in recent years has sounded less and less. Annual tuberculin tests and repeated positive responses to them help to expose the disease. Tuberculosis intoxication in children and adolescents has its own insignificant features.
Is tuberculosis intoxication in children? Until the beginning of treatment, in the period of active manifestations, any infection can spread. During this period, children can infect others.
Tuberculosis intoxication in adults
In the case of adults, this diagnosis is not a separate type of disease, but a condition due to the severe course of the tuberculosis itself.
The symptomatology of tuberculosis intoxication in adults resembles an acute infectious disease. It is manifested by weakness, fever, sharp and pronounced fatigue, a violation of consciousness in the far advanced stages. In other respects the underlying disease proceeds without any peculiarities.
Treatment of tuberculosis intoxication
The treatment of tuberculous intoxication in all groups of infected people is carried out with a long course with mandatory prescription of anti-TB drugs. Children and adolescents well tolerate chemotherapy, so it is prescribed the same regimen as in adults.
Intoxication with tuberculosis and tuberculosis intoxication are different processes. The first is the reaction of the body to infection, the second - the course of tuberculosis in children. Any of these processes is subject to medical supervision and mandatory long-term treatment. In themselves, these conditions do not heal and do not pass.