Tuberculosis intoxication in children and adults
Tuberculosis in many people is associated with a severe incurable infectious disease of the lungs or upper respiratory tract. It is not only the asocial strata of the population or those who were in prison that are affected by this disease, this process affects, including children. Anyone can get infected, regardless of social affiliation. And the most dangerous is severe complications and unusual forms of the disease, when all internal organs are involved in the process.
What is it - tuberculous intoxication? In which cases is this diagnosis put up and what to do if the family has such a patient?
What is tubercular intoxication?
Tuberculosis is an acute or chronic infectious disease with a primary lesion of the respiratory system, caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. These microorganisms are more likely to enter the respiratory tract and are captured by macrophages (blood cells whose work is to fight infections). Then our "defenders" transfer the alien cells to nearby lymph nodes, where they are located for some time. Tuberculosis develops with a weakened immune system or with a large number of mycobacteria that reduce the protective mechanisms of our body. During this period, tuberculosis can develop in any form.
Tuberculosis intoxication is a term for the development of tuberculosis infection when it is impossible to establish exact localization. That is, when all analyzes during the examination indicate the presence and reproduction of mycobacteria in the body, and the specific location of the pathogen cannot be established. Such a diagnosis often sounds in childhood and adolescence, for adults characterized by other conditions. They are more likely not a separate form of the disease, but a syndrome characteristic of the late advanced stages of the disease process. The symptoms of older people are often reminiscent of poisoning.
Diagnosis of tuberculosis intoxication
Tuberculosis is easy to diagnose if the disease is in full swing. The classic manifestation of tuberculosis is coughing, weakness, prolonged fever and constant indisposition. But in the period of infection, when the body has only met with infection, the manifestations are scanty. That is why in the early stages it is almost never diagnosed. The following points may alert the health workers.
- If the family has infected people.
- In the process of annual testing in children, a positive tuberculin test is detected. This is a method for diagnosing not only tuberculous intoxication, but also other forms of the disease.
- You can suspect the disease in the case when a child or an adult has constantly enlarged lymph nodes and signs of inflammation appear in the blood test.
- An annual fluorography study shows nonspecific changes in the lungs and surrounding tissues.
- At later stages, in the period of vivid manifestations, tuberculous intoxication in children and adults can be established on the basis of symptoms.
- The early course of tuberculosis infection is manifested by irritability or lethargy, general malaise, increased nervous excitability, headache, lack of appetite, and rapid heartbeat. But according to such signs it is difficult to suspect the beginning disease, because they are characteristic of many processes. Therefore, the diagnosis of tuberculous intoxication is often established already at the chronic stage.
- Later, the disease is manifested by an increase in almost all forms of lymph nodes to small sizes, only 0.5-1.5 cm. They are thick and painful during examination.
- Periodic slight increase in body temperature.
- Chronic tubercular intoxication is characterized by a slight enlargement of the liver or spleen during the examination of the internal organs.
- Severe fatigue, decreased performance.
- The occurrence of intercurrent diseases. These are the painful processes that appear on the background of the main disease, not associated with it.
- In the general analysis of the blood, permanent changes characteristic of a tuberculosis infection appear: an increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, a decrease in lymphocytes, an increase in the number of eosinophils and neutrophils.
- In addition to general symptoms, there is a stop of physiological weight gain or a sharp deficit of it. Up to a year, a child measures body weight every month, after a year they do it once every 12 months. Increase rates vary slightly, it is not observed in infected children.
- Children are prone to bronchoadenitis (an increase in the group of lymph nodes in the area close to the bronchi), therefore, on the radiograph, inflammation in this area is more often detected.
- Through the circulatory system, mycobacteria spread to all organs, children are prone to severe complications: tuberculous meningitis and miliary tuberculosis.
- In the treatment it is important not only the use of medicines, but also the observance of the general regimen, proper nutrition, courses of sanatorium treatment.
- From the medications use 3 main groups of drugs: derivatives of isonicotinic acid (isoniazid) and rifampicin, medications of average effectiveness (ethambutol, streptomycin) and moderate (PAS, Tibon).
- In doubtful cases, trial therapy is prescribed in therapeutic doses for a period of 3 months, followed by observation.
- How to remove intoxication with tuberculosis? Apply long-term treatment regimen of at least six months, with the appointment of two to four drugs at the same time. Additionally prescribe vitamins and immunostimulating substances. With the ineffectiveness of one scheme can be replaced by another with a complete replacement of drugs.
- When a diagnosis is made in one family member, all the others are fully examined and observed by the therapist or pediatrician for a long time.
Currently, such a diagnosis is made in rare cases. There are early and chronic forms of infection. For each variant of tuberculous intoxication has its own symptoms.
For the diagnosis, a general blood test is made, an X-ray image is taken in frontal and lateral projections, and a sputum test is performed to determine specific cells.
Tuberculosis intoxication in children and adolescents
Such a diagnosis in recent years sounds less and less. Annual tuberculin tests and repeated positive reactions to them help expose the disease. Tubercular intoxication in children and adolescents has its own minor features.
Is tuberculous intoxication contaminated in children? Until the start of treatment, during the active manifestations, any infection can spread. During this period, children can infect others.
Tuberculosis intoxication in adults
In the case of adults, such a diagnosis means not a single type of disease, but a condition due to the severe course of tuberculosis itself.
The symptoms of tuberculous intoxication in adults resemble an acute infectious disease. Manifested by weakness, fever, severe and severe fatigue, impaired consciousness in advanced stages. Otherwise, the underlying disease is uneventful.
Treatment of tuberculosis intoxication
Treatment of tuberculous intoxication in all groups of infected people is carried out by a long course with the obligatory prescription of anti-tuberculosis drugs. Children and adolescents are well tolerated chemotherapy, so it is prescribed the same mode as in adults.
Tuberculosis intoxication and intoxication with tuberculosis are different processes. The first indicates the body's response to infection, the second - the course of TB in children. Any of these processes is subject to the supervision of doctors and mandatory long-term treatment. By themselves, these conditions are not cured and do not pass.