Midge bite - treatment, removal of edema
In the summer, both people and animals are bitten by blood-sucking insects. Among all other dipteran fauna, it is worth highlighting small midges. These hymenopterans, a few millimeters in size, can cause a lot of trouble to a person.
What are the features of midges and how to avoid the dangerous effects of their bites? What if the midge bit in the eye, and it swelled? What measures to take to treat injuries caused by midges?
What kind of insect - midge
According to the zoological classification, midges belong to the same order as ordinary flies and mosquitoes. The peculiarity of the midges is their small size and the saliva, poisonous to humans, with which they smear the bite site. These small blood-sucking insects are gnats along with gadflies, mosquitoes and mosquitoes. In total, there are about 1800 species of midges in nature, and they live on all continents of the globe with the exception of Antarctica.
Insects live in areas where there are reservoirs with running water - rivers, streams. The larvae are very small and transparent, almost invisible in the water. They move on aquatic plants, feeding on microscopic representatives of the animal world. Then the larvae pupate, and after some time an adult individual appears in the light. Live midges about a month. Like mosquitoes, male blackflies feed on the nectar of plants, and the blood of mammals and birds is drunk by females - this is necessary for them to develop future offspring.
Small bloodsuckers are active in the summer on hot days and in the morning. They are waiting for their prey on the tall stalks of grass. Attacking humans, insects are guided by the smell of sweat. Attacks are carried out en masse, so often when a midge is bitten, the victim needs help.
What is dangerous bite midges
The main feature of the bite of midges is a strong irritation of the human skin with saliva, which consists of substances of different toxicity. Midges bite differently than mosquitoes. With their jaws, they pinch off a small piece of the upper layer of the skin and immediately lubricate the wound with saliva containing an anesthetic substance. Therefore, the original midge bite is practically painless. Then the insect licks blood and lymph, protruding on the surface of the wound.
The saliva of these nests is a strong hemolytic poison and contains a whole complex of substances, including anticoagulants, vasodilators, enzymes that break down the nutritional components of the blood to facilitate the digestion of it with midges. These substances have a protein nature, and they cause itching, swelling, pain, inflammation and allergic reactions. Often after being bitten by a midge, leg or arm swells. What to do in this case? It will require treatment - in medicine such poisoning is called simulidotoxicosis.
At the site of the bite after a while, severe itching occurs. It lasts for several days and even weeks, which provokes combs and skin damage, especially in children. When wound infection develops purulent inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, requiring prolonged treatment. How to smear the bites of midges depends on the stage of damage to the skin.
The midges do not tolerate any diseases that are dangerous to humans. The exceptions are insects living in Asia and Africa. They can serve as transmissible carriers (with blood) of onchocerciasis or mechanically transfer the causative agents of cholera, tularemia, anthrax.
How to treat midge bites
So, if the intestine is damaged by the midge, itching, swelling and tenderness occur. Itching is the most common complaint of victims, as it is very intrusive and leads to skin scratching, which can become infected and inflamed, and this is a completely different picture of the disease. Edema can also become a serious problem if they are sufficiently extensive or the bite falls on the area of the face, neck, fingers.
Immediately after receiving the bites of midges, you should try to prevent the development of a strong reaction to toxins. What to do if a midge bit on, for example, a lip or other tender parts of the body? It is necessary to carry out the following procedures:
- wash the wound with clean cold water, blot with a napkin;
- cool the skin at the site of bite with pieces of ice;
- press down the bite for a few minutes with your fingers or apply a pressure bandage (for extensive swelling);
- blot swab dipped in any alcohol-based antiseptic - ethyl alcohol solution, furacilin;
- if necessary, take painkillers and antihistamines - paracetamol, Claritin, Diazolin, Imet.
A few hours after the bite, rashes of a different nature appear on the skin. You can treat them with lotions from a solution of soda (one teaspoon per glass of water) or liquid ammonia. Apply creams, gels and ointments with anti-allergic effect to the damaged areas:
- "Fenistil" gel;
- "Zinovit" cream;
- "Prednisolone" ointment;
- "Hyoxysone" ointment.
What can smear the bites of midges in children? For babies up to one year the use of hormonal agents is not recommended. They are suitable "Fenistil gel" and distracting means such as balm "Star".
A wet-drying dressing with 0.5% novocaine solution or alcoholic solution will help to cope with itching. Light strokes of the skin with fingertips, application of Menovazin solution and other menthol-containing preparations to the edema relieve the condition.
In advanced cases, the bites of the midges pass into the stage of wounds, which are inflammatory processes in the skin. Their treatment can be delayed for a long time - it all depends on the depth of tissue damage, infection by putrefactive bacteria and the timeliness of the start of therapeutic measures. They consist in the following daily activities:
- washing the wound with warm water and soap;
- surface treatment with hydrogen peroxide 3%;
- water-based antiseptic washing (Chlorhexidine, Dekasan solution);
- dressing with antibacterial ointments ("Levomekol", "Oflokain", "Sintomitsin liniment", "Levosin");
- with the general reactions of the body to infection (fever), the doctor prescribes antibiotics in the form of injections.
In some cases it is necessary to resort to surgical treatment of the wound - removal of a scab, pus, and dead tissue.
After the wound was cleared from the products of inflammation, acquired a pink color, a new skin began to appear; daily dressings with aqueous solutions of antiseptic agents were made and healing ointments were applied:
- on the number of bites and varieties of midges;
- the state of the human immune system;
- general tendency to allergic manifestations;
- individual reactions to insect saliva;
- infection of wounds when combing.
severe edema at the site of the bite;
- persistent itching;
- extensive redness in the bite area;
- the appearance of a rash on the skin, and it is often diverse (polymorphic);
- in small children, regional lymph nodes may react;
- fever and signs of intoxication - dizziness, nausea, weakness.
After a massive attack of midges on a child or an adult, various allergic reactions are possible. Their manifestation depends on:
As a rule, the more painful a bite is felt, the higher the probability of allergic reactions.
The most characteristic symptoms of gnaw bite allergy are:
Common reactions also include possible heart palpitations, a drop in blood pressure.
With the development of an allergic reaction, local agents with antihistamine action and ointments with corticosteroids are used (before applying them, the bite site must be treated as described above). Recommended ointments and gels from midge bites:
If the midge bit, then how to quickly get rid of the tumor? In case of severe edema, they take the pill “Suprastin”, “Dimedrol”, other antihistamines (“Zirtek”, “Claritin”). To reduce the pain symptom, use "Paracetamol" or "Acetaminophen".
The development of serious allergic reactions, such as anaphylactic shock or the development of angioedema, to midge bites, is extremely rare. In any case, with a deterioration of health, fever and other signs of intoxication, you should consult a doctor.
An unpleasant feature of the bite of a midge is that with a small insect size it is able to penetrate the ears, the nasal cavity, often biting the lip or the eye. The latter cases are especially dangerous to health - if improperly treated, damage to the eye membranes can lead to loss of vision. Therefore, it is necessary to contact a specialized physician (oculist), who will prescribe the necessary drugs. First-aid measures consist of the following.
- Rinse eyes with running cold water.
- What to remove the swelling, if the midge bit in the eye? It is necessary to lubricate the eyelids with ointment against allergic manifestations ("Hydrocortisone", "Fenistil gel"), preventing it from getting into the eyes.
- Attach a cold compress.
What to do if the child is bitten by a midge and an eye is swollen? If the bite is in the eye area - eyelid, eyebrow, cheekbone, then the bite treatment is carried out in the same way as in other cases: washed, cooled, disinfected and smeared with anti-inflammatory cream.
Folk remedies for the bite of midges
Since the attacks of blood-sucking insects occur mainly in nature, often have to use improvised means, because not always in the arsenal of a tourist there is a first-aid kit. In such cases, the following folk remedies come from the bites of midges.
- Lotion from a saturated solution of salt (a teaspoon in a glass of water).
- Crushed leaves of dandelion, parsley, plantain, wormwood, yarrow, cabbage, mint and lemon balm.
What else treats midge bites at home? Edema can be removed in one of these ways:
- wipe the bite with a bar of soap for a few minutes;
- make lotions from diluted vinegar in equal proportions with water;
- compresses of vegetable oil with the addition of essential oils of mint and lemon (5 drops per tablespoon).
And any balms or toothpastes with menthol and mint will help relieve the itchiness from the bite of the midge.
What not to do with a bite midge
When insect bites can not:
- comb the wound;
- wash the damage with household chemicals (except simple soap);
- apply antihistamine ointments, menthol-containing agents on the open wound surface (only on intact skin around the wound);
- use alcohol solutions on the healing wound (water only);
- independently take antibiotics and anti-allergic drugs.
As a preventive measure, midges bites hide vulnerable spots (hands and face), which are usually bare in the summer. They need to be protected by clothing, and during rest use a mosquito net. The skin can be treated with special agents - attractants that repel insects.
If you still got a bite of the midge, then you can use the people's advice on how to remove the edema - attach a slurry of leaves, make a lotion from soda or saline. If allergic reactions occur, use antihistamine ointments and tablets. In severe cases, you need to consult a doctor.