Bees are beneficial insects. They pollinate plants, so that on the table we have berries, vegetables and fruits. Do not forget about such a wonderful product like honey, which appears only due to the activity of bees. And in medicine, beekeeping, called scientifically apitherapy, is widely used to treat various diseases.
Meeting with bees in life brings not so much joy as pain and disappointment. People who are predisposed to allergies may experience a strong reaction to bee sting or even death. We will try to figure out what a bee bites - benefit or harm. Let's get acquainted with the rules of first aid and treatment.
The composition of bee venom
In the composition of bee venom can detect the most important macro - and micronutrients, such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus. It contains proteins, fats, carbohydrates, acids (phosphoric and hydrochloric). But a special role is played by some biologically active substances.
- Melitin is the most dangerous toxin. Contributes to the destruction of red blood cells. Disrupts the processes of exchange. Stimulates the release of substances that cause inflammation. Increases the permeability of the vascular wall, contributes to muscle contraction.
- Histamine causes an allergic reaction, is the cause of edema, bronchospasm, expansion of blood vessels and a drop in blood pressure.
- Apamin has a stimulating effect on various parts of the nervous system.
- Phospholipase A2 damages cell walls.
- Hyaluronidase is an enzyme that destroys mucopolysaccharides, including hyaluronic acid, which is part of the connective tissue, which leads to the rapid spread of edema.
What is the harm of a bee sting?
A single bee sting in an ordinary person causes only a local reaction. In this case, there is always pain. She is strong enough, burning. Edema appears, which quickly spreads and reddens the skin. The most severe consequences are observed when a bee bites into the head.
If a bee has stung an eye, then due to pronounced swelling of the eyelids, it is completely closed. The pain is very strong. Tearing appears. Perhaps the development of complications in the form of:
- blepharitis (inflammation of the century);
- panophthalmitis (inflammation of all membranes of the eye).
A bite in the lips or mucous membranes of the oral cavity is accompanied by significant local swelling, which can lead to difficulty breathing. This scenario is possible if the insect got into a jam or other product, and the person did not notice the bee while eating.
The bee sting is the most difficult during pregnancy and in childhood. It is more difficult for pregnant women to help, as many drugs are contraindicated during this period. In children, the reaction to external influences is always stronger than in an adult.
What is the use of a bee sting?
Bee venom can be not only harmful, but also beneficial. There is a whole area of traditional medicine - apitherapy, through which many diseases can be treated. What is useful bee sting?
The very components of the poison that cause negative reactions in the human body also have a therapeutic effect:
improvement of metabolism;
- activation of the enzyme and hormonal systems;
- decrease in the activity of the inflammatory process;
- the suppression of the vital activity of harmful microorganisms;
- antispasmodic and analgesic effect;
- lowering blood pressure;
- normalization of cardiac activity and heart rhythm;
- improved microcirculation;
- increased red blood cell count;
- anticoagulant action;
- stimulation of the immune system;
- bone regeneration;
- antiradiation and cytostatic action;
- It has a beneficial effect on the state of the peripheral and central nervous system.
Bee Bite Symptoms
The general reaction of the body is observed with multiple bee stings. At the same time, symptoms of intoxication appear:
- pain and discomfort in the heart;
- nausea and vomiting;
- convulsive state;
- lowering blood pressure;
- possible fainting.
First aid and treatment
Suffer, perhaps, anyone, so everyone should know what to do from a bee sting. The action algorithm is very simple.
- Remove the sting, as the bee always leaves it at the site of the bite. This is necessary in order to stop the further flow of poison into the body. This should be done very carefully with tweezers, which should be pre-treated with an alcohol-containing solution. If the tweezers are not at hand, you can try to remove the sting with your nails or with a disinfected needle.
- The bite site must be processed. Wash with soap and water or a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Any antiseptic suitable, for example, alcohol, setting calendula.
- A simple way to remove the swelling after a bee sting is to apply a cloth dipped in cold water. Ice will do as well. Do not use for these purposes water from a nearby reservoir - you can infect the infection.
- Take an antihistamine pill. You can take "Suprastin", "Tavegil", "Tsetrin", "Zodak." Children are better to give medicine in the form of drops.
- Locally used ointments and creams, such as "Advantan", "Fenistil gel", an ointment with hydrocortisone.
- Drink more fluids, then the poison will quickly be eliminated from the body.
Place the bite can not be combed. Alcohol intake should be avoided, as it promotes the rapid spread of poison in the body. If everything is done correctly, the edema disappears without a trace within 1–5 days.
A very difficult situation arises if a bee has bitten in the eye. What to do in this case: call an ambulance and take antiallergic means. Trying to solve the problem yourself is not worth it, since the likelihood of complications is high, and you can lose your sight.
Bee sting allergy
An allergic reaction occurs in people who are hypersensitive to bee venom. Even a single bite is dangerous for them and can lead to death. Allergy is manifested in different ways.
- Urticaria is characterized by the appearance of blisters of a pale pink color in various parts of the body. Localization of the rash does not depend on the site of the bite. There is severe itching.
- With angioedema, the face, neck, lips, tongue, upper respiratory tract swells, which can lead to death by suffocation.
- Anaphylactic shock is the most severe reaction. It develops with lightning speed. At the same time, all the symptoms of allergy are observed, bronchospasm develops, pressure drops and there is no consciousness. If time does not help the victim, then death occurs.
First aid for bee sting allergies
Treatment of a bee sting with the development of an allergic reaction should begin immediately. In this case, you must always call an ambulance.
Before the arrival of the doctors, all the same activities are carried out as in the usual situation. Antihistamine medication is required. Arriving at the place of the doctors after assessing the condition usually use "Prednisolone" or "Dexamethasone". Medicines are administered intravenously or intramuscularly. These hormonal agents help reduce the symptoms of an allergic reaction.
Sometimes, to save the life of the victim, a conicotomy is required when an incision is made in the tracheal region, after which a tube is inserted. Due to this, air begins to enter the respiratory tract.
After providing first aid, victims should remain under medical supervision. Acceptance of hormonal drugs continues until full recovery - the disappearance of edema and rash. Also, some time you need to take antihistamines. As an addition to the main treatment, intravenous administration of sodium thiosulfate or calcium chloride can be added.
With the development of anaphylactic shock, resuscitation is necessary. Hospitalization and inpatient treatment is required.
Folk remedies for bee sting
When a bee stings, folk remedies may also be useful as first aid.
How to treat a bee sting at home? To neutralize the harmful effects of poison, you can do the following:
- sugar refined wet with water and attach to the bite;
- dissolve an aspirin tablet in water and process the wound with the resulting solution;
- aspirin with activated carbon to throw in a glass of water, wait until dissolved, moisten cotton wool and lubricate the sore spot;
- attach sliced vegetables and fruits to the bite of the bee: tomato, onion, cucumber, apple;
- gruel can be made from soda and water, which is applied to the sore spot;
- garlic juice will help prevent edema.
How to avoid a bee sting
For those who are not a supporter of apitherapy and do not want to become a victim of bee sting, you need to follow the basic rules:
- keep calm when meeting an insect and not waving your arms;
- do not eat foods that attract bees on the street: fruits and sweets;
- if you have to rest in nature, it is better to dress lowly, close your arms, legs and head;
- insects that are seen nearby cannot be disturbed.
In general, a meeting with a bee can bring not only harm, but also tangible health benefits. The most important thing is to know how to remove a tumor arising from a bee sting and prevent the development of complications. It is even more important to remember what to do if you are allergic to a bee sting. From a properly rendered first aid can depend on the life of a person.