Bees are useful insects. They pollinate plants, thanks to which we have berries, vegetables and fruits on the table. Do not forget about such a wonderful product as honey, which appears only due to the activity of bees. And in medicine, bee-craving, called scientific apitherapy, is widely used to treat various diseases.
Meeting with bees in life brings not so much joy, but pain and disappointment. People who are predisposed to allergies can have a strong reaction to bee venom down to death. We will try to figure out what the bee's sting is-benefit or harm. We will acquaint ourselves with the rules of first aid and treatment.
Composition of bee venom
In the composition of bee venom it is possible to detect the most important macro- and microelements, such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus. It contains proteins, fats, carbohydrates, acids (phosphoric and hydrochloric). But a special role is played by some biologically active substances.
- Melitin is the most dangerous toxin. Helps destroy erythrocytes. It disrupts the exchange processes. Stimulates the release of substances that cause inflammation. Increases the permeability of the vascular wall, contributes to muscle contraction.
- Histamine causes an allergic reaction, is the cause of edema, bronchospasm, vasodilation and a drop in blood pressure.
- Apaminum exerts a stimulating effect on various parts of the nervous system.
- Phospholipase A2 damages the cell walls.
- Hyaluronidase is an enzyme that destroys mucopolysaccharides, including hyaluronic acid, which is part of the connective tissue, which leads to a rapid spread of edema.
What is the harm of a bee sting
A single bee sting in an ordinary person causes only a local reaction. There is always a pain. It is strong enough, burning. Appears edema, which quickly spreads, reddens the skin. The most severe consequences are observed when the bee stings into the head.
If the bee stings the eye, then because of the pronounced edema of the eyelids, it completely closes. The pain is very strong. Appears lachrymation. Perhaps the development of complications in the form of:
- blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelid);
- panophthalmitis (inflammation of all the membranes of the eye).
A bite in the lips or mucous membranes of the oral cavity is accompanied by a significant local edema, which can lead to difficulty breathing. This scenario is possible if the insect has got into jam or another product, and the person did not notice the bee while eating.
The most severe is the bite of a bee during pregnancy and in childhood. Pregnant women are more difficult to provide assistance, since many drugs during this period are contraindicated. In children, the response to external influences is always stronger than in an adult.
What is the use of a bee sting
The poison of a bee can bring not only harm, but also benefit. There is a whole line of traditional medicine - apitherapy, through which many diseases can be treated. What is useful for a bee sting?
The very components of the poison that cause negative reactions in the human body have a therapeutic effect:
improvement of metabolism;
- activation of the enzyme and hormonal system;
- decreased activity of the inflammatory process;
- suppression of vital activity of harmful microorganisms;
- antispasmodic and analgesic effect;
- lowering blood pressure;
- normalization of cardiac activity and heart rhythm;
- improvement of microcirculation;
- an increase in the content of erythrocytes;
- anticoagulant action;
- stimulation of the immune system;
- regeneration of bone tissue;
- anti-radiation and cytostatic action;
- has a beneficial effect on the state of the peripheral and central nervous system.
Symptoms with a bee sting
The general reaction of the body is observed with multiple bites of bees. Thus there are symptoms of intoxication:
- pain and discomfort in the heart;
- nausea and vomiting;
- convulsive condition;
- lowering blood pressure;
- fainting is possible.
First aid and treatment
Anyone can suffer, so everyone should know what to do with a bee sting. The algorithm is very simple.
- Remove the sting, since the bee always leaves it at the bite site. This is necessary in order to stop further intake of poison into the body. This should be done very carefully with tweezers, which must first be treated with an alcohol-containing solution. If tweezers are not at hand, you can try to remove the stinger with your fingernails or with a disinfected needle.
- The place of bite must be processed. You can rinse with soap and water or a mild solution of potassium permanganate. Suitable for any antiseptic, for example, alcohol, calendula setting.
- A simple way to remove the edema after a bee stings is to apply a cloth soaked in cold water. Suitable and ice. Do not use water for this purpose from a nearby water body - you can bring an infection.
- Take an antihistamine pill. You can take Suprastin, Tavegil, Cetrin, Zodak. Children should be given a medicine in the form of drops.
- Locally used ointments and creams, such as "Advantan", "Fenistil gel", ointment with hydrocortisone.
- Drink more liquid, then the poison will be quickly excreted from the body.
The place of bite can not be combed. Avoid drinking alcohol, as it promotes the rapid spread of poison in the body. If everything is done correctly - the edema goes without a trace within 1-5 days.
A very difficult situation occurs if the bee has bitten into the eye. What to do in this case: call an ambulance and take an antiallergic agent. Independently to try to solve a problem it is not necessary, as the probability of development of complications is high, and it is possible to lose sight.
Allergy to a bee sting
An allergic reaction occurs in people who are hypersensitive to bee venom. Even a single bite is dangerous for them and can lead to death. The allergy manifests itself in different ways.
- Urticaria is characterized by the appearance of blisters of pale pink color in various parts of the body. The localization of the rash does not depend on the site of the bite. There is severe itching.
- With edema Quincke, the face, neck, lips, tongue, upper respiratory tract swelling, which can lead to death as a result of suffocation.
- Anaphylactic shock is the most severe reaction. It develops lightning fast. At the same time, all the symptoms of allergy are observed, bronchospasm develops, pressure drops and consciousness is absent. If you do not help the victim in time, then death occurs.
First aid for allergies to bee stings
Treatment of a bee sting with the development of an allergic reaction should begin immediately. In this case, you should always call an ambulance.
Before the arrival of doctors, all the same events are held as in the usual situation. Taking antihistamines is mandatory. Arriving at the place of physicians after assessing the condition usually use "Prednisolone" or "Dexamethasone". Medications are administered intravenously or intramuscularly. These hormones help reduce the symptoms of an allergic reaction.
Sometimes, in order to save the life of a victim, a conicotomy is required, when a cut is made in the trachea, after which a tube is inserted. Due to this, air starts to enter the respiratory tract.
After providing first aid, the victims must remain under medical supervision. Admission of hormonal drugs continues until complete recovery - the disappearance of edema and rash. Also some time it is necessary to take antihistamines. As an addition to the main treatment, intravenous administration of sodium thiosulfate or calcium chloride can be added.
With the development of anaphylactic shock, resuscitation is necessary. Required hospitalization and treatment in a hospital.
Folk remedies with a bee sting
With a bee sting, folk remedies as first aid can also be useful.
How to treat a bee sting at home? To neutralize the harmful effect of poison, you can do the following:
- sugar refinable water and apply to the bite site;
- dissolve the aspirin tablet in water and treat the wound with the resulting solution;
- aspirin with activated carbon tossed in a glass of water, wait until dissolved, moisten cotton and lubricate the sore spot;
- attach to the place of bite bees cut vegetables and fruits: tomato, onion, cucumber, apple;
- from soda and water, you can make a gruel, which is applied to a painful place;
- to prevent the development of edema will help the juice of garlic.
How to avoid a bee sting
For those who are not a supporter of apitherapy and do not want to become a victim of bee venom, one must adhere to the elementary rules:
- keep calm when meeting with an insect and do not wave your hands;
- Do not eat food on the street that attracts bees: fruits and sweets;
- if you have a rest in nature, it's better to dress unobtrusively, close your hands, feet and head;
- You can not disturb the insects seen nearby.
In general, meeting with a bee can bring not only harm, but also tangible health benefits. The most important thing is to know how to remove a tumor from a bee stings and prevent the development of complications. It is even more important to remember what to do with an allergy to a bee sting. From a properly rendered first aid can depend on a person's life.