What to do with a snake bite
Snakes are common on all continents of the globe. In total, there are about 3,500 of their species, more than 300 of them are listed as poisonous. In Russia, there are 11 species of these poisonous reptiles, but death from a snake bite is a rare occurrence, as the most dangerous fauna representatives live in hot countries.
The most common form of a poisonous snake in the territory of our country is an ordinary viper. Its area is very wide and captures not only the territory of Russia, but also the countries of Europe and Asia. In general, from the point of view of poisonous snakes, our country is a safe place. Often, when traveling abroad, to countries with a tropical climate, this fact plays a cruel joke with our compatriots. People who are not accustomed to fear representatives of the fauna behave incorrectly and can get serious poisoning from the poison of animals, including snakes. How to recognize poisonous snakes and what to do in case of a bite - we'll talk about this in this article.
Venomous snakes of Russia
The most common in the territory of our country are the following:
- the adder is ordinary;
- steppe viper;
- adder is Caucasian;
- Shield-moss is ordinary.
The Viper is ordinary. Inhabits the European part of Russia, Siberia and the Far East. It is very demanding to the biotope - it needs forest and forest-steppe zones where it is possible to bask in the sun and hide in the undergrowth. It occurs along the banks of rivers and lakes, at the edge of marshes, in glades and mixed forests. The body of the snake is thick, up to 75 cm long, females are larger than males. The head is triangular, the pupil is vertical; on the anterior margin of the upper jaw are located large poisonous teeth 4-5 mm in length. The color of the snake varies from gray to reddish-brown, a zigzag dark strip on the back is characteristic, but there are also completely black vipers. Vipers, bite defensively, while occupying a characteristic pose for the throw and hissing. Throw it makes a small height - 10-15 cm, so that a bite can protect high boots or rubber boots. Venom of a viper has the ability to cause hemorrhages, increases blood clotting and causes local necrotic reactions.
Viper is a steppe. It differs from an ordinary viper in its habitat - it is common in steppe and forest-steppe zones of Europe, Kazakhstan, Moldova, South Ukraine, China, Iran and Turkey. The size of the snake is not more than 50 cm, the color is brown or gray, the back of the zigzag is dark, on the sides you can distinguish dark spots. Cases of death of a person after a sting of a steppe viper are not fixed - mainly from it suffers livestock.
Viper is Caucasian. It looks like a steppe adder, but somewhat larger in size and has a characteristic bright color - yellow-orange or brick, with a dark stripe on the ridge. Inhabits the Krasnodar Territory, the South Caucasus and North-Eastern Turkey. It can be found in mountainous areas in forest and meadow belts. There are isolated cases of death of people from the bites of this snake.
Shield mackerel ordinary. This snake belongs to the family of Yamkogolovs. You can meet her in Southern Siberia and the Trans-Volga region. The body of this reptile is up to 70 cm long, gray or brown in color, on the back are dark wide transverse spots. The head is covered with large scutes. The bite of the musculoskeletal is painful, accompanied by swelling and blood circulation disorders. Possible lesions of the kidney and spleen, internal hemorrhage. Despite such serious symptoms of deaths after a bite of the screenworm, it was not noted.
In the territory of the former Soviet republics, several other species of venomous snakes can be found.
- Gyurza lives in the south of Central Asia and in the east of the Caucasus. It refers to the genus of giant vipers, the length of its body can reach two meters. The bite of a gurgi causes pain and swelling, the poison has a hemolytic effect, leading to hemorrhages, rupture of small vessels and increased blood clotting. At the site of the bite, a double trail of teeth is visible, later there bubbles form. A fatal outcome is possible due to general poisoning of the body, internal hemorrhages, renal failure.
- Sandy Efa - another representative of the viper family, lives in the deserts and semi-deserts of Central Asia. The snake is more poisonous than its northern relatives - a lethal dose of poison for a person is 5 mg, and without appropriate care and treatment, a fifth of the bitten people die.
- The Central Asian cobra is a poisonous snake from the family of aspids. Occurs in the south of Central Asia, unlike its more southern counterparts, it does not have a characteristic spectacle color. Cobra venom has a predominantly neurotoxic effect. Even the deadly bite of a snake is less painful than that of vipers, and the local reaction (pain, edema, necrosis) is almost not expressed. In severe cases, death comes from paralysis of the respiratory center and heart failure.
- The nosed viper.
- The Little Asian Viper.
Exotic poisonous snakes
Shtomurdnik, who lives on the territory of Russia, is a representative of Yamkogolovye, or rattlesnake. Among the southern species of rattlesnakes found in the southern United States, in Central and South America there are very toxic. For example, dwarf thunders and Brazilian rattlesnakes. The rattlesnake's bite in 75% of cases leads to death.
In Africa, lives hairpin, the poison of which consists of many toxins and has not been fully studied. The sting of a hairpin is dangerous to humans and animals and causes severe pain, narrowing of blood vessels, heart attack. The site of the bite swells, hematomas develop and the necrosis of the tissue develops.
The Viper's Bite
Since the main danger in our country comes from viper snakes, we will consider the issues of first aid and treatment with the example of the viper of an ordinary bite.
Symptoms of a bite of this snake will be the following.
At the site of the bite, two points from the poisonous teeth are clearly visible.
- In the first minutes after the bite, there is a slight pain, burning sensation in the injury site, edema and redness of the skin develops.
- Swelling quickly spreads, dizziness and weakness arise.
- With the development of an allergic reaction, there is edema of the larynx, breathing is difficult.
- General symptoms develop 20-40 minutes after a bite: blood pressure decreases, heart rate increases, skin pales, nausea and vomiting are possible.
The consequence of a viper bite is the necrosis of tissues at the site of the bite and the further development of necrosis and gangrene. With improper care, there is a serious danger of losing a bitten finger or even a limb.
Can a snake bite in water? Maybe, but, as a rule, vipers live far enough from water and find themselves in it only when crossing to the other shore. If a snake bites you in the water, then, most likely, that's it. Another thing - snakes in tropical countries. In the warm waters of the Indian and Pacific basins there are many sea snakes and all of them are more or less poisonous.
First aid for a snake bite
What to do if a snake bites? The injured person must be given first aid or self-help if there are no other people nearby. The first help with a snake bite is the following:
- take measures so that the snake does not bite again;
- if the bite fell into the hand - remove the rings, bracelets and stuff, so that they do not squeeze the tissues with edema;
- within 15-20 minutes, suck the blood out of the wound, periodically spitting the contents;
- if the bite site is not available for self-sucking, then it can be done with a syringe, cutting off the spout;
- The wound is treated with any antiseptic - alcohol, iodine, zelenka;
- to the victim to ensure peace, so that the poison does not spread quickly and the body has time to fight it;
- an abundant drink will help detoxify the body.
- cauterize the bite site;
- take alcohol;
- cut or cut the skin at the bite site.
There is a specific antidote for snake bites - a therapeutic serum obtained by hyperimmunization of horses. Each serpent has its own serum. In Russia, you can buy whey from venom of viper ordinary, sandy ephah and gurzy. It should be noted that the serum should be used by a doctor, since, being a biopreparation, it can cause allergic reactions, up to anaphylactic shock.
In addition to the introduction of antidote serum, the treatment of a snake bite is symptomatic. It is necessary to drink a lot of liquid to speed up the excretion of the poison by the kidneys. To prevent allergic reactions take the tablet "Suprastin", "Dimedrol" or other antihistamine. If necessary, the doctor prescribes supporting cardiac and anesthetics.
What you can not do with a snake bite
Can I use a hemostatic tourniquet after a bite of a poisonous snake? This stereotype was formed on the basis of information about snake bites with a poison of nerve-paralytic action - for example, cobra. In cases with bites of vipers and thunders, the application of a tourniquet is not only useless, but also extremely harmful. First, the viper venom spreads very quickly through the blood stream, and secondly, tissue trauma only aggravates the necrotic changes at the site of the bite.
What else can you do with a snake bite:
With the development of a general allergic reaction, the victim should be rushed to the hospital.
Bites of non-venomous snakes
Sometimes a non-venomous snake bites a man. Is there any cause for concern in this case? Yes, but only if you have mistaken a non-poisonous snake with a poisonous one. On the territory of Russia, suspicions are often caused by mednyki and snakes.
It differs from a viper in black color and orange spots on the back of the head and absence of a zigzag strip on the back. You can confuse horror with a viper of a rare black color. The head is of an oval form, the viper is oval-triangular. Scales of horrors glisten in the sun, while in the viper it is matte. They live mainly near water bodies. The bite of the horror is not so painful and does not cause severe edema and hemorrhages.
Viper Nikolsky, or copper, is not poisonous. This snake is up to 70 cm long, gray or brown in color, inhabits practically the entire European part of Russia. Its saliva is toxic, but the bite of a copperfish is dangerous only for its extraction - lizards and other small vertebrates, as the teeth of the snake are arranged so that a person can not bite it.
Those who hold houses of exotic snakes, you should know about boa bites. Boas are quite peace-loving snakes, but in case of danger they can attack and bite. Bites of large individuals are quite painful, but not poisonous. The wound needs to be treated with an antiseptic, so as not to infect the infection - and the incident will remain without consequences.
What to do if a snake bites a child
If the child was bitten by a snake, do not panic. It is necessary to calm the baby, take off his shoes or roll up his sleeves, depending on the place of the bite. Wash the place of bite with laundry soap and treat with antiseptic. Provide the baby with a plentiful drink, better something with a diuretic effect - black tea, herbal decoctions. To prevent the development of an allergic reaction, give an antihistamine. If the child is not vaccinated against tetanus, then it is necessary to make an injection of tetanus antiserum.
Try to remember the snake, call the ambulance and describe its appearance. If the child is less than three years old, or if the bite falls on the neck, the area of the face - immediately seek medical help, even if you are sure that the snake is not poisonous.
Let's sum up the above. On the territory of Russia there is a small number of poisonous snakes, there are almost no deaths from their bites. The greatest danger is the bite of an ordinary viper. Risk factors - children's age, diseases of the cardiovascular system, allergy to snake venom, bites in the neck and head. The first aid consists in sucking poison out of the wound, disinfecting the bite and delivering the victim to the hospital, where he will be administered an antidote - a specific serum. For several days, it is necessary to comply with bed rest and drink plenty of liquid to accelerate the removal of toxins from the body. In severe cases, supportive therapy may be needed - anti-shock, cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory. The effects of a snake bite usually last for a week. Complications can be disorders in the work of the kidneys or infection of the wound at the site of the bite.