"Unithiol" - an antidote for poisoning
When exposed to toxic substances on the body, a person may feel unwell, or he will have symptoms of poisoning, which do not always lead to death, but death in such cases is not excluded.
It is possible to cure poisoning in different ways, and one of them is the use of an antidote - a substance that binds and removes poison from the body. One of these drugs is "Unithiol" - is an antidote used in various poisonings. Consider how it works and how to use it.
The mechanism of action "Unitiol"
The drug "Unithiol" was developed in the Soviet Union as an antidote to help against the effects of certain toxic chemicals. Treat poisoning can be if:
- prevent the ingress of a poisonous substance into the body;
- speed up its elimination;
- to bind and take him out of the body, until the consequences have developed.
To prevent the entry of substances into the body, you can use methods of prevention, or removing a person from the area of infection. Blood thinning and forced diuresis help accelerate its excretion. This means that a large amount of fluid is injected intravenously, and then excreted by stimulating the function of the kidneys, while the poisonous substance is excreted along with the urine.
Antidotes or antidotes can bind and remove poison from the body. They are different for each poisonous substance. "Unithiol" is a drug that contains two sulfhydryl groups (- SH). By the way, its predecessor, the British anti-luisite BAL, designed to combat the poisonous substance lewisite, has only one (- SH) group.
How does Unithiol, whose mechanism of action associated with active (- SH) groups can help? Sulfhydryl group "Unithiol", capable of binding heavy metals (mercury, chromium, arsenic, copper, zinc, bismuth, and others), which are present in some drugs, appliances, paints and exhaust gases. A decrease in the number of sulfhydryl groups in the blood, when toxic substances join them, causes pain. This happens with diabetes, amyloidosis, polyneuropathy caused by chronic alcoholism.
"Unithiol" binds heavy metals and releases sulfhydryl blood groups. It relieves pain and allows the enzymes whose work was disturbed by the presence of heavy metals in the blood to recover. Therefore, it is believed that "Unithiol" - an effective antidote for poisoning with heavy metals, and it contributes to their removal.
"Unithiol" is used as an antidote not only for heavy metal poisoning, but also for poisoning with substances that cause a lack of sulfhydryl groups in the body (alcohol).
The drug is used for poisoning with heavy metals (except for lead), for diseases that cause polyneuropathy (diabetes, chronic alcoholism, Wilson-Konovalov disease), poisoning with cardiac glycosides.
Consider how to use "Unithiol" as an antidote for poisoning.
"Unithiol" in mercury poisoning
Mercury poisoning can occur both at home and at work. Probably, each of you at least once broke glass thermometers to measure body temperature. In addition, mercury is used in electroplating processes, and it is part of some complex devices. When released into the environment, mercury evaporates quickly and its vapors are very toxic.
In case of acute mercury poisoning, Unithiol is used for gastric lavage and injected intramuscularly or subcutaneously. "Unithiol" forms an insoluble mercaptide compound with mercury, which is easily excreted from the body.
"Unithiol" is administered orally during gastric lavage with a probe. The stomach is washed several times and after that 10-15 ml of Unithiol is injected through the probe, then the stomach is washed again after 10-15 minutes. It is well absorbed by entering the blood, binds mercury and removes it through the kidneys.
For the treatment of mercury poisoning, "Unithiol" is also administered intramuscularly, the dosage is 0.05 g / kg body weight. On the first day, 3-4 injections are made, in the second 2–3, then 1-2 injections for a week until the symptoms disappear completely.
"Unithiol" with arsenic poisoning
Arsenic poisoning occurs when insecticides, herbicides used to fight rats, mice, flies and cockroaches are ingested. In addition, arsenic is used in the manufacture of glass in the pharmaceutical industry.
After it enters the body can be observed and gastrointestinal and paralytic poisoning. Paralytic characterized by severe weakness, muscle cramps. It quickly leads to a comatose state and often death.
If time does not provide medical assistance develops acute renal failure, which can also be fatal.
"Unithiol" is used as a specific antidote. Since it binds arsenic and removes it from the body. To do this, it is given to the patient 1 tablespoon, after which the stomach is washed after 5–10 minutes. The procedure is carried out several times. Intramuscularly, it is administered for 3-4 days, in the same dosages as with mercury poisoning. On the first day, make 3-4 injections, in the second 2–3, then 1-2 in a day until the symptoms disappear.
"Unithiol" in case of poisoning with cardiac glycosides
Poisoning with cardiac glycosides or foxglove preparations can occur not only during overdose, but also due to cumulation (these drugs have the ability to accumulate in the body). Often the cause of poisoning is self-treatment or the use of decoctions of medicinal herbs, a foxglove enters many heart collections, without knowing this when taking heart glycosides, and uses decoctions. This can lead to poisoning.
"Unithiol" in case of poisoning with cardiac glycosides is administered intramuscularly 5-10 ml 3-4 times a day, then 1-2 times a day until the symptoms of poisoning disappear.
"Unithiol" in chronic alcoholism
The use of ethyl alcohol and alcohol-containing beverages leads to poisoning of the body, and in some cases to alcoholic coma and death. Therefore, ethyl alcohol can be considered a poisonous substance. Its prolonged use causes certain changes in the human body and addiction. Man can not stop drinking. Alcohol, entering the body, is decomposed by alcohol dehydrogenase to acetaldehyde, it is he who causes intoxication of the body.
"Unithiol" is used in the treatment of alcoholics in conjunction with other drugs. It is not a specific antidote for either alcohol or acetaldehyde, which is the cause of the morning hangover. Although there are now many hangover drugs that contain "Unitiol", it is unreasonable to use it for a hangover. And if you take into account the side effects that it causes, it is even contraindicated.
"Unithiol" can be used in chronic alcoholism and during the occurrence of delirium in a patient. It is a mental disorder that is accompanied by general agitation, delusions, visual and sound hallucinations.
In such situations, "Unitiol" is not an antidote. At this point, a decrease in the number of sulfhydryl groups is observed in the body, which causes a disturbance and damage to nerve cells, and “Unithiol” with its two (SH) groups prevents this. It is precisely because of this quality that it is prescribed for diabetes when disorders of the nervous system, polyneuropathy, and reticulopathy appear.
In chronic alcoholism, "Unithiol" is prescribed in the amount of 3-5 ml 2-3 times a week. And in case of delirium, it is administered once intramuscularly in a volume of 5 ml of 5% solution.
So, "Unithiol" is a drug that can be used as a specific antidote for poisoning with heavy metals or cardiac glycosides. It is also used to treat chronic alcoholism, delirium, diabetes mellitus in complex therapy.