A milestone (poison) poisonous or cycuta is one of the most poisonous and dangerous plants. They can go both adults and children. The fact that this plant is poisonous to humans has been known for a very long time. And this property was used with a bad purpose. In ancient Greece, this plant was used for the death penalty of convicts.
To avoid poisoning with a poisonous milestone, you need to know what this dangerous plant looks like and what it represents. Let's find out everything about this plant, who is most exposed to the negative effects of hemlock, what are the first signs of poisoning, what needs to be done to save the injured person.
Description milestone poisonous
Milestone poisonous (cycuta, omega marsh, cat parsley, omezhnik) is a perennial plant of the umbrella family. The height of the grass can reach 150 cm, but more often plants are found up to 100 cm. The root of the hemlock is thick and short, the stem has grooves in the lower part, and many branches in the upper part. If you break the stem at the top, it will be hollow.
Poisonous leaves are narrow, divided by 2-3 cores into segments. Their ends are sharp, and the edges are notched. Since the landmarks plant is poisonous refers to the umbrella, its stems end in inflorescences of flowers or seeds. The flowers of white or yellow color form a complex umbrella with a diameter of 5–15 cm. The description of the poisonous milestone is similar to parsley during the flowering period and the hemlock (swamp omega).
Where is the poisonous milestone growing? Cikuta likes a moist environment, so it grows in swampy areas, along rivers, in lowlands. It can be found from Europe to the western edge of Siberia, in the countries of Asia Minor and on the Mediterranean coast. Milestones bloom in June and August, then fruits are formed instead of flowers. If you break the plant and grind it in your hands, you can feel a strong, specific, rather unpleasant smell. At the same time stands out yellow thick juice.
All parts of the plant are poisonous. Stem and rhizomes have a sweetish taste, they are especially dangerous in late autumn and early spring. Root milestone poisonous contains the most toxins and causes death in 50% of cases of poisoning. In the dried rhizomes of poisonous substances is more than fresh.
Toxic toxins in the milestone
Toxic properties of a plant are caused by cicutoxin and cycutol contained in it. These toxins are so strong that 100 grams of the rhizomes of a plant is enough for fatal poisoning of a cow, and 50–100 grams for the death of a sheep. For a person, the lethal dose of a poisonous milestone is 50 mg of a plant per 1 kg of weight. Plant poisons are very stable and do not lose their toxicity with long-term boiling, freezing, drying.
Cicutoxin affects the central nervous system, preventing the development of an important biologically active substance - GABA. Cicutol and cicutoxin are substances that stimulate the nervous system.
In addition to toxins, yellow poison essential oil, which is not poisonous and contains p-cymol and cumin aldehyde, causing a specific smell of herbal juice, is part of the poisonous milestone. Flavonoids and alkaloids are found in the leaves of the poisonous milestone. Thanks to these substances milestones poisonous found application in medicine.
The use of poisonous milestone
Despite its toxicity, poisonous milestone is used in traditional medicine and homeopathy. In ancient times, the juice of cycuta was used for the preparation of ointments, increasing the size of the mammary glands. In microdoses, this plant can be used as a homeopathic remedy for the treatment of eczema, helminthic invasion, convulsive syndrome with teething, migraine, epilepsy, as an antispasmodic after concussion of the brain and spinal cord. For medicinal purposes, only the leaves of the workshop are used, since all other parts of the plant contain too much poison.
In folk medicine, milestones are used in the form of tinctures, rubbing, ointments. Its tincture is used internally for pain, bronchial asthma, epilepsy, whooping cough, psychosis, paralysis, as a diaphoretic. Locally - for arthritis and osteochondrosis. In no case can you use a poisonous milestone yourself - you should definitely consult with your doctor.
It was found that the active substances contained in the hemlock can have an antitumor effect. They stop the growth of a tumor, kill cancer cells. But the independent use of this plant for oncoprophylaxis or treatment is not recommended, as the poison poison is too strong and dangerous.
The use of poisonous medicine milestone is not widespread. At the beginning of the XXI century, a drug called Cicutin was developed. It contains biologically active substances present in the milestone toxic, but purified from toxins that are dangerous to humans. This medicine is intended for use in oncology.
Who can get rid of hemlock? Animals and children are most susceptible to poisoning with a poisonous milestone, but in adults toxic poisoning of this plant can also occur. It can be accidentally consumed along with seasonal greens, it can get into homemade preparations with other herbs, children eat the fruits of a milestone out of curiosity. The rhizome poisonous pole is wide, thick, similar to carrots. The smell of the plant is also similar to carrot. There are descriptions of cases of poisoning of children who confuse the hemlock root with edible plants.
What is dangerous milestone poisonous? Its poison has a fast action and very high toxicity. Even a small amount of hemlock, eaten by a person is enough for the appearance of acute signs of poisoning. The path of ingress of poison may not only be food, there are cases where intoxication occurred even when the sap of a plant got on scratches.
Symptoms of poisoning
The first signs of poisonous poisoning appear in 10 minutes after consuming the first dose of poison. Malaise manifests discomfort in the stomach, sometimes severe stomach pain. Often the first sign is unsteady gait.
Then quickly join the rest of the symptoms of poisonous poisoning:
- invincible and prolonged vomiting;
- severe drooling;
- spasms of the masticatory muscles;
- dilated pupils;
- increased heart rate.
The behavior of the victim is compared with how a drunk person behaves.
At the use of significant doses, convulsions, foam from the mouth, fainting, pallor of the skin, followed by reddening, join the symptoms. Death occurs from respiratory arrest or heart failure, asphyxiation during convulsive seizures is possible.
First aid for poisonous poisoning
To save a person in case of poisoning with this plant is possible only with a quick appeal for medical help. Therefore, the first thing you need to call an ambulance. To identify the poisoning, you can interview the victim or witnesses, inspect the scene of the incident, pay attention to the presence of parts of the plant in vomit.
What can you do yourself? Treatment of any food poisoning is best to start with gastric lavage and cleansing enemas. It can be washed with saline, 0.1% potassium permanganate solution or plain water. This procedure can be difficult due to spasm of the chewing muscles. Flush the stomach should be immediately upon detection of the victim, you should not take him home, and then perform actions. Every minute more and more toxins enter the bloodstream, increasing the symptoms. To rinse it is not necessary to have a special probe, you can simply drink poisoned with large amounts of warm water (at least 1 liter) and force to pull out the root of the tongue, irritating your fingers.
The injured person needs to be given black coffee, saline laxatives and enterosorbents (activated carbon, Polysorb, Enterosgel, etc.). These are the main means of poisoning with milestone poisoning. They are aimed at binding toxins in the gastrointestinal tract and preventing them from entering the blood.
If the victim was found unconscious, then first of all you need to check the presence of breathing and heartbeat. In their absence, immediately begin resuscitation .
There is no antidote for the poison of cicuta, therefore treatment consists only of symptomatic therapy, but it does not allow a person to die. In the hospital, the patient is hemosorbed to clear the blood of toxins, intravenous glucose infusions, anticonvulsant therapy with tranquilizers (diazepam), gamma-hydroxy-butyric acid, treatment with glucocorticoids. In case of respiratory failure, respiratory analeptics are used. Use of cardiac glycosides for rhythm disturbances in this case is contraindicated. Instead of them, it is better to use Novocainamide.
Milestone poisonous - a very common and extremely poisonous plant. If most adults still check what they eat, children, because of their curiosity, can easily taste this dangerous herb. You can poison yourself with a milestone if you get juice on wounds or scratches, or eat meat that has poisoned the animal or touched his hands after contact with the plant. The rapid development of symptoms leaves little time to think. Spasms, dizziness, vomiting, breathing problems require immediate action. Since there is no antidote to cicuta toxins, only symptomatic therapy is carried out. Simple, but timely started gastric lavage, enema, chelators, coffee and saline laxatives - can save a person's life.