Under the unifying national name "wolf berries" means fruits, red and black in color, which grow on shrubs and herbaceous plants. Their use causes acute poisoning or manifests toxic effects.
Poisoning mainly occurs in the summer, during the ripening of berries and outdoor activities. Often children become victims of poisoning, it is they who are attracted by bright, appetizing and at the same time life-threatening berries.
The belladonna ordinary (belladonna, sleepy stupor) belongs to very poisonous plants - all parts of the plant are toxic, the fruits bear particular danger. Juicy and shiny berries of the belladonna attract attention, they are sweet enough in taste, have a black color and look like cherry in shape. Honey collected from belladonna flowers becomes poisonous.
Symptoms of wolfberry poisoning
- sensations of dryness of the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth;
- the voice becomes hoarse and difficulty swallowing;
- pupils are dilated and reduced visual acuity;
- headache, in severe cases - hallucinations and delusions are possible;
- nausea, vomiting;
- diarrhea and urination disorders;
- face and torso become dry and red, as with scarlet fever;
- first, the pulse and respiration rates are reduced, and they increase with time.
In the case of severe poisoning with a wolf berry, an ordinary woman completely loses the ability to orient himself, mental and motor stimulation occurs, convulsions, loss of consciousness and coma occur. Fatal outcome comes from the cessation of breathing and the work of the heart, due to paralysis of their centers.
Typical complications in the form of subcutaneous edema of the face, forearms and legs, and disturbances in them trophic processes.
The next wolfberry has almost the same name - wolf cap, but it is also called wolf bast, daphne. This evergreen shrub up to one and a half meters, is covered in spring with beautiful pink or white flowers, which ripen in autumn into red, oval and appetizing in appearance, but in fact poisonous, fruit with bone, resembling barberry. Berry is a significant danger (more than 5 pieces cause death), although the whole plant is poisonous - leaves, stem and their juice.
Symptoms of wolfberry poisoning:
- burning sensation on the mucous membrane of the mouth and oropharynx;
- drooling and impaired swallowing;
- vomiting with blood and stomach pains;
- irritation of the conjunctiva of the eye;
- weakness and loss of consciousness, seizures are possible.
When wolfberry juice comes in contact with the skin, a burn occurs, which is characterized by pain, redness, swelling, and further blistering and ulceration.
The pathological process is acquired during hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Death in severe poisoning occurs due to cardiac arrest.
The next wolfberry plant is called raven eye. This perennial plant has 4 large leaves, a tall stem (up to 40–45 cm) and a single flower, the fruit from which is a black berry covered with a bluish bloom.
Some parts of the plant are characterized by a variety of toxic effects: the leaves contain neurotropic poison (affecting the central nervous system), the rhizome provokes strong vomiting, the berry has a toxic effect on the heart. Crow's eye is a deadly poisonous plant.
Symptoms of poisoning wolfberry (crow's eye):
- throat sensation and burning sensation in the mouth;
- abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting;
- severe headache, significant pupil dilation and dizziness;
- diarrhea and colic;
- violation of the cardiovascular system, changing the rhythm of the heart until it stops;
- convulsions are possible, with complications paralysis of the respiratory center and cessation of breathing.
Toxic substances (saponins) cause irritation of the mucous membranes of the mouth and nasopharynx, eyes, stomach and intestines. Contribute to the release of hemoglobin, destroying red blood cells.
Wolfberry - buckthorn brittle (bruise, fragile buckthorn) grows in the form of a shrub or small tree. Its bark has a laxative effect, thanks to which it is widely used in medicine. Buckthorn berries are solitary; when ripe, they get a purple-black color. They have a sweetish taste, but are inedible. Their use, especially unripe berries, causes severe poisoning.
The buckthorn brittle poisoning is characterized by the following symptoms:
- nausea and vomiting;
- stomach ache;
- severe painful diarrhea;
- the presence of blood in the urine.
More often, children suffer from poisoning, in which the headache, impaired pulse and cramps of the extremities also join the listed manifestations.
For a lethal outcome, 7–8 berries are sufficient.
Snowberry, it is a low deciduous shrub that has an elegant look. Its pink flowers turn into spherical fruits of white color. Berries contain saponin, which has a toxic (irritating) effect on mucous membranes and skin.
Symptoms of snowberry poisoning:
- lesions of the skin and mucous membranes with external exposure - symptoms of inflammation and irritation - redness, swelling and pain;
- violation of the mucous layer of the alimentary canal when consumed in food - weakness, vomiting and diarrhea, pain in the stomach, dizziness, confusion, and even fainting are possible.
The plant carries particular danger for children.
Elderberry wolfberry is a shrub up to three meters tall, which has clusters of shiny red fruits with a stone. Immature berries and leaves have toxicity.
Symptoms of elderberry poisoning:
- weakness, headache, and dizziness;
- irritation of the mucous membrane of the throat;
- abdominal pain with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea;
- intense cyanotic (cyanotic) shade of the mucous membranes;
- disturbed breathing on exhalation and shortness of breath;
- sometimes there are convulsions;
- tachycardia with the transition to bradycardia (reduction of the heart rate) before the development of heart failure.
The red-crowned Voronets, this perennial plant, whose height reaches 70 cm, has elongated red berries, collected in a vertical brush. All parts of the plant have a toxic effect, but the berries have a special danger to children. Although they taste bitter, smell unpleasantly, their use can lead to tragic consequences.
Symptoms of poisoning the wolfberry
- dizziness and weakness;
- pulse acceleration;
- severe dysfunctions of the alimentary tract with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
When the first symptoms of poisoning appear, it is recommended to immediately wash the patient's stomach (drink plenty of water and induce vomiting), take activated charcoal and consult a doctor.
A reliable way to prevent wolfberry poisoning is to increase the sanitary culture of the population and to teach children how to behave in the forest.